Solutions
Emulsified Zero Valent Iron(EZVI)
This technology was designed for the in-situ treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) or more specifically chlorinated solvents found in contaminated groundwater, and is one of the few methods that can treat the DNAPL source.
  • Developed and Patented by NASA
  • Field-tested by the U.S. EPA under the SITE Program
  • Primarily used for in-situ DNAPL source area destruction
  • Injection or soil mixing using conventional technologies
  • Does not promote mobilization of the contaminant plume
  • EZVI is made from environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials
  • Remediation with EZVI takes only 2–3 months.

The Technology

Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI) is created by placing nanoscale or microscale zero-valent iron particles into a sur­factant-stabilized, biodegradable water-in-oil emulsion. This emulsion is injected into the contaminated zones of the subsurface. The DNAPL is then pulled into the emulsion where the contaminant reacts with the zero-valent iron. Through a process known as reductive dehalogenation, the DNAPL and its daughter products are degraded into ethane and other hydrocar­bons. These by-products are finally broken down through bio­logical activities in the subsurface. Although designed to tackle the difficulties associated with remediating DNAPLs, EZVI is also effective at treating dissolved-phase contaminants. There­fore, no separate technology is required to treat the dissolved portion in the contaminant zone. Examples of Treatable Contaminants:
  • Dry Cleaning SolventsEZVI
  • Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE)
  • 1,2-Dichhloroethene (DCE)
  • Vinyl Chloride (VC)
  • Hexachloroethane (HCA)
  • Carbon Disulfide (CS2)
  • Carbon Tetrachloride (CT)
 
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